Guide Fragmentary decrees from the Athenian agora (Hesperia Supplement 38)

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ISBN 1. Temple of Athena Nike Athens, Greece 2. Series III. Series Hesperia Princeton, N. Supplement; T35M37 '. This cooperation gave both institutions the opportunity to contribute to a monograph that illuminates key aspects of the history of this complex and important Athenian sanctuary. The Institute undertook to edit Dr.

We hope that this work will add significant new insights and spark renewed debate on the subject. Maghteld J. I first became interested in the cult-site as a graduate student at work on my dissertation. My topic was the representation of Nike Victory on the Akropolis, a study that encompassed Archaic and Classical votive statuary, bronze vessel attachments, architectural sculptures particularly, the Parthenon sculptures , and the Nike Parapet.

As I pursued my work, I became more and more intrigued by the relation of Nike and Athena Nike, Winged and Wingless Victory, and I made a special attempt to clarify that relation through a closer investigation of the history of the Nike Bastion and the Athena Nike cult. Midway in my doctoral research I became aware of a body of notes and plans that to that point had hardly been made use of. These papers, preserved in the archives of the Archaeological Society of Athens, pertain to the major restoration of the Nike Bastion undertaken from to by Nikolaos Balanos, then director of the Restoration and Preservation of the Akropolis Monuments.

I had at that time neither permission nor, I felt, sufficient background to edit the Nike Bastion papers in full, but their importance was nonetheless unmistakable. The present study is the result. I am very mindful of the trust and confidence put in me by my seniors. James R. Stephen G. Miller, Director of the American School at my return to Athens in , was also highly instrumental in securing me permission to publish the Balanos papers.

This study would have been impossible without their support. They took the unusual and very generous step of opening previously unedited papers to a nonmember of the Society. I am very grateful as well to the successive Ephors of the Akropolis during my period of study, George Dontas and Evi Touloupa. With their permission, I studied and surveyed the remains of the early bastion, first in and again in In an earlier publication I acknowledged the fellowship support that I received as a graduate student.

That fellowship allowed me to research and to begin writing this study. I had the help of a great number of friends and associates at various stages in the preparation of this work. Craig A. Mauzy did the photographs, both of the Balanos drawings and of the early remains from the site. The late William B. Dinsmoor, Jr. Cooper helped me to take levels on the bastion. I benefited from repeated discussions with Evelyn B. Harrison, who shared with me her then unpublished research on the chronology of Attic sculpture. Gerald Lalonde went with me to the Epigraphical Museum on a number of occasions to look at inscriptions.

Anna S. Last, I collaborated with Karlene Friedman on the drawings: I prepared the initial drawings in pencil; she prepared the inked version with added labels and numbers. I know that I must have forgotten many who had a hand in this work. The following come to mind for their unusual kindness or generosity: John McK. Camp II and Susan I. Rotroff, for discussing Agora chronology with me and looking through relevant Agora pottery lots; Manolis Korres, for his attempt, unsuccessful in the end, to find more documentation on the Balanos excavations; Margaret M.

Miles, for allowing me to read her then unpublished article on the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnous; Homer A. Thompson, for reading and commenting on my work in manuscript; and Nancy A. Winter, who repeatedly seemed to think of things that I had not, both scholarly and practical. There is scaffolding on the Nike Temple as I write this. The third restoration of the site is now under way. I feel it is appropriate that this study, centered on the second restoration of the site, should appear when it does. There is still much to learn about the Nike Bastion. I hope that my review and discussion of the second project may be an aid in work to come.

Ira S. A few more recent titles have been added in the notes. The Base for the Cult Statue and the Repository. Figures 1. The Western Akropolis before the Venetian Siege of Block from the Stage I Altar. The Naiskos in Elevation from the West. Blocks A 1 and A 2. Restoration of the Naiskos: Plan and Elevation from the North. Rectangular Altar from the West. Profiles of the Moldings on the Rectangular Altar.

Mud-Brick Extension of the Rectangular Altar. Based on Welter , pi. IV: 3, with an annotated site plan in the Balanos Archives Features now removed or otherwise incompletely documented are in broken line. The earthen core of the bastion is shown as of Stage II. The Stage IV bastion and temple krepidoma are in thinner line. Features now removed or otherwise incompletely documented are in broken line; restorations are drawn dot-dash-dot. Naiskos and Repository Base for the Cult Statue from the Southwest The wall block at middle ground left W 7 is from a later context and is wrongly placed on the euthynteria.

A steel brace for the ceiling of the crypt is at middle ground right. Photograph Agora 1 :b. Naiskos and Repository Base for the Cult Statue from the East The wall block at background right W 7 and the anta block at left A 1 were found in later contexts and are wrongly positioned on the euthynteria. The corbeled ashlars in the background, the steel strut at center, and the rubble underpinning of the naiskos and repository are modern.

Photograph Agora 2:a. Welter, AA , fig. Excavation Photograph of the Naiskos and Repository from the East Remains of the amphiprostyle-temple foundations are behind and to the left of the naiskos. Photograph Balanos 3:b. Excavation Photograph of the Naiskos from the Southwest The north wall of the naiskos is at center above, with the ashlar foundations of the amphiprostyle temple to left and right.

The partially excavated fill of the bastion is at lower left and center, the bastion crosswall at lower right. Photograph Lemerle , fig. Excavation Photograph of the Bastion from the Southwest The western face of the Cyclopean bastion is at lower right, with several courses of the lighter, Stage I stonework above. The northwest corner of the ashlar bastion sheathing is at left; at upper right, the naiskos. Photograph Welter , fig. Rectangular Altar and Base Slab from the Northwest The base slab is supported on a modern concrete podium.

Photograph Agora 6:a. The Stage III square altar is above left, its outer course set on modern concrete. Two large chunks of concrete are in the foreground at left. The walls of the crypt are visible to each side and behind. Photograph Agora 6:c. Welter , pi. V:9 7. Compass direction and scale added by the author. Photograph Agora 8. Balanos Archives: Plan of the Western Bastion at Course 14 of the Ashlar Sheathing The bipartite Classical niche of the bastion is at center, with its Mycenaean predecessor outlined behind.

Compass direction added by the author. Photograph Agora 9. Photograph Agora Balanos Archives: Elevation of the Bastion from the West with the Sheathing Partly Dismantled The west face of the Mycenaean bastion is shown at center, overbuilt by the lighter rubble of the Stage I crown. The foundations for the amphiprostyle temple are in section above. Balanos Archives: Longitudinal Section of the Bastion from the South The naiskos stands just below the amphiprostyle temple, with the eastern foundations of the temple in dotted line to the right.

Balanos Archives: Transverse Section of the Bastion from the East The remains of the nai'skos are at center right, with the repository in elevation behind. The amphiprostyle- temple foundations are at left, the bastion crosswall below. Scale added by the author. Photograph Agora a. Photograph Agora b. Balanos Archives: Course 1 of the Foundations for the Nike Temple The main chamber of the Turkish crypt is at center, the base of its rubble-and-mortar vault lining the foundations left and right.

The crypt entryway cuts through Course 1 from the east. The remains of the nai'skos are half-immured in the foundations at lower right. Balanos Archives: Course 2 of the Foundations for the Nike Temple The main chamber of the Turkish crypt dotted line is at center, with nai'skos foundation blocks F 2 and F 3 and euthynteria blocks E 2 and E 3 exposed at lower right. The repository is just inside the nai'skos, partly exposed at the corner of the crypt. Balanos Archives: Course 3 of the Foundations for the Nike Temple The nai'skos and repository are at lower right, with the bastion crosswall partly exposed at their foot.

Compass direction added the the author. Balanos Archives: Course 4 of the Foundations for the Nike Temple The bastion crosswall is below, half-revealed by the eastern foundations, with the north waill of the naiskos overlapping it at right. The rubble Stage I bastion crown lies just inside the foundations above. Ionic Capital of the Nike Temple. Front View Photograph Ross , pi. VIII b. Temple of Athena Nike.

Late Geometric Graves and a Seventh-Century Well in the Agora

Detail of the Northeast Corner Photograph Picard n. Nike Parapet. Actual-state Plan of the Early Nike Bastion and Surroundings Features now removed or otherwise incompletely documented are in broken line.

The walls of the modern crypt are indicated by stippling. The later bastion is in a thinner line. Thompson and R. Schuchhardt and E Eckstein, eds. Leipzig Blegen, E. Die griechische Halbsaule, Wiesbaden -.

Mnesicles, Copenhagen -. The Excavation of the Athenian Acropolis, , Copenhagen -. Raffan, Cambridge, Mass.

The Athenian Inventory Lists. A Review Article

Buschor, E. Die Tondacher der Akropolis, Berlin -. Kopcke and M. Moore, eds. Coulton, J. Robinson II, G. Mylonas and D. Raymond, eds. Louis, pp. Observations on the Hephaisteion [Hesperia Supplement 5 , Princeton -. The Architecture of Ancient Greece, 3rd ed. Sounion, Athens Thompson [Hesperia Supplement 20 , Princeton, pp. Jakrhunderts v. Chr, Krefeld Donohue, A. Frazer, New York French, E. Die Skulptur der Griechen, 3rd ed. Meisterwerke der griechischen Plastik ,, Leipzig -. Akademie der Wissenschqften zu Miinchen I, Munich, pp.

Halfte des 5. Papenfuss and V Strocka, eds. Die Tempel der Griechen, 2nd ed. Hill, A Manual of Greek Historical Inscriptions , 2nd ed. Greek Terracottas , London Hiller, F. Formgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur griechischen Statue des spdten 5. Excavations at Ephesus, London Holland, L.

Manni IV, Rome, pp. Topographie vonAthen , 2nd ed. Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft 3. Tkronende und sitzende Goiter, Bonn Kakridis, I. Perikleische Baukunst, Darmstadt Korte, A. Thompson Hesperia Supplement 20 , Princeton, pp. Princeton University Leake, W.

Diegriechische Plastik Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft 6. Griechische Mauerbauinschriften, Heidelberg Martin, R. Wade-Gery, and M. Athenian Tribute Lists, 4 vols. Geschichte der griechischen Religion I, 3rd ed. Eleusis, Berlin Oikonomos, G. Les materiaux de construction et la technique architecturale des anciens grecs, Paris Orlandos, A. The Erechtheum. Text by L. Caskey, H. Fowler, J. Paton, and G. Stevens, Cambridge, Mass. Pemberton, E. Kyrieleis, ed. Leges graecorum sacrae e titulis coUectae, Leipzig Puchstein, O.

Jeffery, Cambridge, Mass. University of Pennsylvania Ross, L. Archaologische Aufsatze, Leipzig Ross, L. Schaubert, and C. Geburtstag, Leipzig, pp. Greek Walls, Cambridge, Mass. Profiles of Greek Mouldings, Cambridge, Mass. Siewert, P. Festivals of Attica, Madison, Wis. Travaux et memoires 11 , Paris Spon, J. Dittenberger, SyUoge inscriptionum graecarum, 3rd ed.

A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions , 2nd ed. Bradeen and E McGregor, eds. Friihe griechische Kultbilder diss. University of Munich , Wurzburg Winter, Franz. Greek Fortifications, Toronto Wolters, P. Attische Mauern, Athens Wyatt, W. Greek Altars, St. The temple had been gradually settling for several years, a cumulative drop of up to a fifth of a meter on the west and south, and the crumbling stonework of the bastion had begun to shift and bow.

From October to his retirement in March , Balanos supervised the dismantling of the temple and of much of the bastion, the replacement of the temple foundations, and the initial stages of rebuilding. His successor, Anastasios Orlandos, brought the project to completion in September Although the bastion project was planned as a work of restoration only, early on it came upon major archaeological finds. In January , four months underway, the work crew uncovered a naiskos, a small-scale temple of simple n-shaped plan, immured in the foundations of the later temple.

Clearing a corner of the naiskos a few days later, they came on a deposit of terracotta figurines set in a stone repository. Further work showed the repository and naiskos to rest on a massive Mycenaean terrace. On the west, a huge corbeled niche at the base of this terrace was immediately seen to relate to the distinctive bipartite niche of the Classical bastion: the latter was a regularized, ashlar copy of this major Bronze Age feature.

Balanos replaced the crumbling foundations for the Nike Temple with a massive concrete podium reaching fully to bedrock, an installation that required the removal of the naiskos, repository, and adjacent stretches of Mycenaean stonework. Intent on preserving as much of the context of these finds as possible, Balanos later restored them to their original place in a specially built crypt. To enter, one descends a stair southeast of the temple E on Plan A and proceeds along the Bronze Age bastion, down the length of the southern crown, and around the west face.

A short flight of steps on the south F on Plan A leads up to two low rooms enclosing the early remains of the cult: the naiskos, repository, inscribed altar, and other finds at their level. Then bracing for war, Greece saw few other projects so brought to a close. However fortunate we are in the fact of publication, the report itself has proved a difficult and discouraging guide. Balanos The pre-print is dated The difficulties go beyond brevity, however. Balanos rarely discusses chronology. The report makes no reference to stratigraphy and, with one exception, none to pottery.

It is notable, at any rate, that he encouraged the unofficial collaboration of Gabriel Welter, a seasoned field archaeologist who had himself excavated on the bastion in Welter notes two finds omitted by Balanos and includes several observations on the architecture of the bastion, on the pottery, and on the stratigraphy of the bastion core. He closes with several new proposals for the history of the cult.

Citing ceramic evidence, Welter suggests that Athena Nike was not a war goddess, as commonly believed, but a goddess of agonistic competition. He thus ties the Nike cult to the Panathenaic Games. The foundation of the cult, and with it the inscribed altar, date in his view to , as part in a major expansion of the Panathenaia attested in that year.

They are an invaluable record both of the organization and methodology of the project and of the context of the finds. At the same time they reveal how clouded was the process of interpretation from the start.

Fragmentary Decrees from the Athenian Agora

Nowhere are the literary and epigraphical testimonia on the cult systematically compiled. Key passages of Heliodoros and Pausanias on the cult statue of Athena Nike are nowhere cited. The substantial set of inscriptions on the cult is at most alluded to and nowhere examined in full. The legacy of this fragmented record could hardly be otherwise: data worked and reworked, theories argued and opposed, with little agreement on the most basic of findings, and little sense of real progress. I will be returning to this thesis in more detail.

Here it is sufficient to note the long shadow of the excavation accounts: focused on the archaeology of the find, Raubitschek largely ignored the written sources on the cult, most glaringly the sources on the cult image. Scholars were receptive to his thesis for a time but came gradually to realize its gaps. Work in and is summarized by Walter , cols. The results of the project are summarized by C.

Oikonomos appears to have seen these traces himself at first hand. It is contradicted by two decades of research on the history of Mycenaean and sub-Mycenaean figurines. Thinking that the figurines antedated the collapse, Iakovidis suggested that they came originally from the corbeled niche in the west bastion face and that sometime after the collapse, they were carried atop the bastion to the eschara. She posited that the eschara, terracottas, and cult statue were first brought atop the bastion in the Archaic period.

We have seen the starting point for this line of scholarship, the supposed Dark Age date of the terracottas, to be in error. The base serves to date the image at earliest to the early 6th century. The early bastion has been further investigated by J. Bundgard, though on lines largely independent of Oikonomos.

A study of on the Mnesiklean Propylaia attempted to correlate the stages of the Nike Sanctuary with stages of the gate area of the Akropolis, directly to the east. Bundgard posited that the stepped forecourt of the Old Propylon, the apparent predecessor of the Southwest Wing of the Propylaia, is contemporary with the naiskos, the predecessor of the Nike Temple. This pre-Mnesiklean stage, judged Archaic 18 Oikonomos For broader discussion, see Brommer , p. Compare now C. He suggested that the natural outcropping of the bastion was itself sacred in the Bronze Age: the niche at the foot of the west face was constructed to allow worship at the base of the outcropping, while a polygonal gap in the ashlar sheathing on the north reveals a second sacred stone part way up the bastion face.

His treatment of the early bastion in Parthenon and the Mycenaean City on the Heights follows the lines of his earlier Propylaia study, with one significant exception. The later work considers the naiskos to be mid-5th century, not Archaic, 24 a view firmly supported by the present study.

The stepped forecourt, firmly anchored in the Late Archaic period, has no equivalent on the bastion. We may see the link of the two areas to be illusory also in the Bronze Age. The present study documents two distinct periods of bastion stonework, the Cyclopean bastion proper and a lighter rubble repair of Archaic date. Bundgard founded his upper terrace, forerunner to the stepped court, on Cyclopean stonework at the west and on rubble almost certainly of Archaic date at the east.

Theory upon theory has indeed given way, but there remains from this research a depth of observation and expertise, be it on epigraphy or Bronze Age architecture, without which the present study would have been everywhere weaker. Having challenged the theories of Bundgard in particular detail above, I 22 Bundgard , pp. Similar versions in the Balanos archives cf. In fact the level given by Balanos at the northwest is 1. Photographs: Lemerle , p. It is the first aim of my study to correct this loss.

It examines the early finds from the bastion in detail and documents them in drawing, in photograph, and through comprehensive description. It is the first such record ever. With the exceptions of remains now disturbed or inaccessible, all instances of which I have noted case by case in the text, my observations are throughout firsthand.

A review of these archives in and again in revealed a core of materials that merits publication: a body of drawings, including plans, elevations, and sections of the bastion Pis. These records can never compensate for the failure to record pottery and stratigraphy. They do help, however, to reconstruct the progress of the excavations, and in documenting such now destroyed remains as the foundations for the Nike Temple and the Turkish powder crypt, they clarify the context and interrelation of the finds as a whole.

The excavations throw light as much on the history and chronology of the ashlar bastion and Classical temple as on the excavated finds themselves. The disassociation of the temple from the Nike Temple Decree, in particular, gives new meaning to a range of other sources on the 5th-century cult. He reworks and expands his thesis in Parthenon and the Mycenaean City on the Heights , pp. For inaccuracies in the restoration of foundations and rubble remains, see note 2 below, p. I have taken care to confirm, however, the general accuracy of these earlier measurements with my own.

The issues at stake draw on such a range of evidence and are at points so potentially controversial that I have thought it best to build my argument by stages. I begin with the material remains of the Nike cult. In Chapters II and III, I examine two finds whose history can be traced through several stages of the cult: the Cyclopean bastion itself, its crown twice rebuilt; and the repository, formed of blocks reused from the base for the cult statue. In Chapters IV—VII, I proceed through the full range of finds from the site, documenting, interpreting, and dating the stages of the sanctuary level by level.

And in Chapter X, I present my conclusions, bringing together the material remains and the literary and epigraphical evidence on the sanctuary stage by stage. Balanos came to a temple that had already been once rebuilt. Dismantled by the Turks in the 17th century, it was restored to place by Ludwig Ross in And toward the end of the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th there had been limited excavation beneath the sanctuary paving.

I conclude this first chapter with a brief history of the site from the close of antiquity to the start of the Balanos project in The cult of Nike lay idle from that time on. Through fourteen centuries, under Byzantine sway to , held by Frankish dukes to and by the Ottoman Turks to , the Nike Sanctuary was by stages altered and reused. The earliest appreciable damage dates from a Frankish refortification of the citadel, completed gradually from the 13th to the 15th centuries.

One traversed the new line through a passage just inside the Agrippa Monument and continued up a ramp along the front of the Propylaia, across the Nike Bastion, and around the Southwest Wing. The monumental altar of Athena Nike lay directly across the new approach and was likely razed at this time. Only its prothysis and foundations survive. In contrast, the temple remained largely unharmed.

Its roof had likely fallen in, to judge at least from how little survives of the tympana, sima, and tiles, but from the frieze down it was fully intact. The Nike Parapet, the sculptured barrier that edged the bastion on the north, south, and west, also appears to have stood largely unharmed.

The Turks pulled up the four paving slabs of the cella and excavated the area inside the cella foundations, partially cutting through the remains of the nai'skos. They covered the chamber with a rubble-and-mortar barrel vault, its apex coming to the level of the former paving, and cut a low entrance through the temple krepidoma from the east.

Ascending the medieval ramp, they linger over the view from the bastion, admire the columns and finely carved frieze of the temple, and note the powder store below. Under attack by the Venetians, the Turks razed it to the krepidoma and overbuilt the bastion with a major battery Fig. The line of wall from the bastion to the Agrippa Monument was strengthened inward and heightened as an emplacement for four cannon. The epistyle, geison, and wall blocks of the temple and four blocks of the figured frieze were built into the inner face of these fortifications, with the remaining frieze slabs, column drums and capitals, and several fragmentary slabs of the Nike Parapet set in as packing behind.

It appears to have been at this time that several meters of foundations for the temple were torn out, from the northern pier of the doorwall to the northeast anta, and the crypt enlarged to the east. James Stuart and Nicholas Revett include the krepidoma on a plan of the Propylaia and reproduce three of the four visible blocks of the figured frieze. The remains are in their view a temple of Aglauros. He completed his study with a restored plan and elevation of the temple, wildly incorrect distyle in antis facing north but of interest for its use of drawings made soon before on site by C.

The crypt is recorded on several drawings in the Balanos archives. A longitudinal section establishes its length and depth PI. Block drawings of courses 1 and 2 of the temple foundations Pis. A section across the eastern foundations of the temple includes the south wall of the entryway and, in dotted line, the inner curve of the vault PI. The temple stylobate was left in place, apparendy carried on wooden beams. V, pp. In , Lord Elgin pried the slabs free and shipped them to England, a part of the famed Elgin marbles.

In Ludwig Ross and the architects Eduard Schaubert and Christian Hansen supervised the demolition of the battery across the Nike Bastion and the Frankish fortifications and ramp beneath. The battery proved to contain nearly all the blocks of the Nike Temple, largely intact and unreworked, and the temple krepidoma was largely intact as well, if badly sunken on the east and south. In Richard Bohn partially excavated the interior of the bastion in order to establish the relative dates of the Propylaia and the Nike Sanctuary.

The earth within these gaps was still largely 37 London, BM On the consignment of the slabs to London, see Smith , p. The rectangle is formed of six blocks in foundation course 2 PI. In course 1 the rectangle is truncated on the south to form the passageway for the crypt. The modern date of the repair is established from its relation to Turkish remains. Large patches of medieval mortar cover the south euthynteria of the naiskos, an area overbuilt by the southernmost blocks of the repair, and similarly there is late recutting and several patches of burning on the euthynteria opposite, covered by the repair on the north.

The sharp difference between the two flank walls of the crypt passageway is indicative as well. The south wall was roughly hacked out by the Turks and faced with rubble and mortar. The north is trimmed straight and even PI. Finally, there are cuttings made for the original temple foundations, distinct in orientation and setting from the blocks put in by Ross. An ashlar-sized rectangular cutting on the inner face of the naiskos north wall is for a block set on the axis of the later temple, not aligned with the naiskos as is the repair Fig.

The area west of the Southwest Wing appears to have been reexplored by A. Koster in See Raster , p. The areas where the paving was intact, untouched by Bohn, were finally excavated by Gabriel Welter in East of the temple he came on an intact altar about a meter below the Classical level, the first evidence of earlier cult. To the north he found a square block, a second altar as we shall see, and to the east, a continuation of the wall northeast of the temple first uncovered by Bohn. The first of the two altars, the predecessor of the monumental marble altar of the sanctuary, points, as no other find does, to the dramatic discoveries of Balanos a decade later.

The two were immediately seen to belong together. The partial dismantling of the Classical bastion in and left its Mycenaean predecessor fully exposed on the south and along most of the west. Only the first few courses of sheathing were removed on the north and at the northwest corner, to a point sufficient to reveal the early remains in plan. A number of drawings from the Balanos archives are thus of special interest: 1 an elevation of the bastion from the south as exposed in PI.

The bastion was built out from the foot 1 Balanos , pp. Photographs and plans make clear that stonework was also removed along the upper edge of the western crown of the bastion and at the eastern end of the southern crown. On the west this stonework was partly replaced, not stone for stone, but in keeping with the general character of the original.

Cyclopean walls elsewhere on the Akropolis have been dated stratigraphically to the 13th century b. For the Akropolis walls, Iakovidis , p.

Download Fragmentary Decrees From The Athenian Agora Hesperia Supplement 38 2008

Grossman andj. Jantzen, ed. Its west face measures 9. The south flank, set at an acute angle to the west flank, has a preserved length of The north flank, only partially revealed in excavation, starts back from the west at an oblique angle for 3. Its remains, completely dismantled and rebuilt by Balanos, have been partially immured in the modern crypt.

Exposed temporarily in the course of restoration, it was left largely inaccessible behind the rebuilt sheathing. A poros pier, 0. As suggested by Balanos, the pier dates from the sealing of the niche at the construction of the Classical sheathing. It was seated over a circular rock-cut bedding, seemingly for a predecessor in columnar form. Balanos presents a somewhat confusing report on this niche, which his archival drawings only partly clarify. The horizontal cross-section Plate 8 shows two niches, one on the right the sole niche Balanos refers to outright in his report and a second, smaller niche on the left.

The right-hand niche is clear in a pencil drawing of the west face in the archives, the line of its vault set offby a Classical packing of small stones, as Balanos describes , p. The left-hand niche is far less clear. The boulders in that area form no coherent vault, and there is no observable distinction between bastion face and packing, the stonework being of large scale throughout. On the line of the north face, Balanos , p. A stretch of wall in irregular trapezoidal masonry gives the line of the north face beyond its bend D on Plan A.

On the relation of the Mycenaean bastion and the Propylaia, particularly Wrede , pp. The wall was mistakenly reinstalled 0. For the partitioning of fills in Mycenaean terrace construction, see J. The highest and lowest figures are around a centimeter apart. If, as the context suggests, this statement refers to the right-hand niche, then it stands in contradiction to the plan, Plate 8.

To judge from the contour line there, the back of the right-hand niche was fully revealed. The contour of the left-hand niche, however, has a softer, less defined appearance, as might be expected were it never fully cleared. We may suggest, thus, that it was in the second niche that the collapse occurred. Balanos not only omits explicit reference to the left-hand niche, he fails to publish photographs his report includes two views of the right-hand niche and failed to leave the area of the left-hand niche accessible in the reconstruction. We need to consider whether a second niche ever existed at all.

The workmen would have left off this attempt on realizing that both niches of the Classical sheathing refer to the right-hand niche, with the right-hand niche and the Classical niche both marked by a central pier. Should this explanation be correct, there remains a final enigma. Balanos states , pp. The meaning of 6Xixov pqxoq is ambiguous here but is most plausibly taken as the width of the niche and its boulder surround together. Niche and surround are ca. This is, in fact, the width of the right-hand niche, attested in cross-section PI. With the addition of its flanking boulders, however, its width comes to only 3.

The width of both niches with their flanking surround, measured off the cross-section, Plate 8, at any rate, is just 5 meters. The bedrock direcdy below the cutting is carved into steps intended for the backers to the Classical sheathing. In the uppermost of these steps Balanos found a second, rectangular cutting, length 0. Balanos notes nothing in the pit, but to one side on the rock-cut step were traces of burning and a burned sherd.

An archival drawing of the 15th course of the Classical sheathing shows that the rock step in question was filled with backers up to, but not over, the rectangular cutting: the rear 0. The hollow thus created was sealed over by the 14th course PI. Rock cuttings are notoriously difficult to date. A close reconstruction of the Bronze Age entrance lies beyond the needs of our study. In the face of recent research that has challenged a number of long-held assumptions on the bastion, however, some comments are in order. Granted that the bastion and circuit were independent, the former still ought to have formed part of a consistent line of defense, since a terrace undefended is an invitation to siege and a staging post for the enemy.

A ready solution is to restore the bastion as part of a proteichisma, a short, preliminary line of defense, that would have followed the western slope of the Akropolis a short way down from the circuit. But even if it was less than half the scale of the Lion Gate, to protect it the Nike Bastion must still have reached several meters higher than it is now preserved.

If we place the proteichisma gate at ca. The remains are seemingly those of a propitiatory offering made when the Mycenaean face was sealed. Compare the discussion of the Pelargikon by Iakovidis , pp. The boulders forming the lowest fully exposed course on the inner face seen lower right in PI. In contrast, the wall above, from ca. This upper stonework is of moderate rather than monumental scale, formed of blocks 0. The lower bastion is formed largely of boulders 0. The stones of the crown, as on the north, average well under 0.

Retained along the inside edge of the crown on the south are remains of an earth fill similar in color and character to the earth packed within the stonework of the crown. A glance at the scale of this upper stonework, however, makes it evident, as on the north and south, that the crown and lower face belong to different stages. As entered on late 19th-century plans by Bohn and Kawerau, a stretch of rubble wall traversed the eastern end of the sanctuary on a near parallel to the Mycenaean circuit Plan A. It appears to have been part of the upper stonework of the bastion, perhaps having marked the limit of the sanctuary across the closed side of the bastion.

At some point a major collapse occurred. The rubble crown of the bastion serves to confirm this view. As a direct extension of the original stonework on the north, west, and south, it is clearly a repair or rebuilding. Its evident 16 The earth fill is evident in the excavation photograph, Lemerle , p. Behind [this full] fourth course was the face of an older wall of small stones, see photograph, which constitutes, it appears, a continuation of the boulders visible to the inside.

Welter , col. XI; Kawadias and Kawerau , pi.

The sole description of the wall is Kawadias and Kawerau , col. Fur die Bedeutung dieses Mauerstucks liegen keine Anhaltspunkte vor. The first rebuilding may be roughly dated by its masonry. The absence of mortar speaks for a date in or after the Geometric period. Late Helladic walls are all but invariably set in clay.

http://cadivus.co.uk/columbia-1000-words-you-must-know.php The blocks are massive by early Greek standards, suggesting a date at earliest in Middle, more likely in Late Geometric times. Its face, now obscured by modern fill, was carefully recorded by Welter in his excavations of On Mycenaean mortar, e. Wace, Mycenae, Princeton , p. Greek stonework remains characteristically of small scale into the Late Geometric period, built typically of fist- to skull-sized rubble; more substantial blocks, if present, remain largely at foundation level.

Mylonas, Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries, Princeton , figs. Together with other walls at Eleusis from the same stage of the sanctuary, it forms the earliest, or at least one of the earliest, examples of Attic polygonal masonry. This early polygonal, however, is dated neither by stratigraphy nor by other firm criteria at Eleusis. IV; V:l, 7, 9. For earlier reference to this wall, then only partially exposed, Bohn a, p. My levels are derived from Balanos, who records the top of the wall as —1.

The masonry of the second rebuilding is in so-called irregular trapezoidal, that is, the blocks are trapezoids with the horizontal joints parallel and the vertical joints oblique, laid in courses of slighdy varying and irregular height. A further trapezoidal block was uncovered by Balanos along the west face of the bastion. Inasmuch as the first and second rebuildings form respectively the inner and outer faces of the crown on the north, it is likely that the two stages had a similar purpose.

Like the first rebuilding, the second appears intended to repair and level the bastion crown. The portions of the rubble crown that it replaced may have been dismanded or, what is more likely, may have collapsed or been destroyed. We may restrict ourselves for the moment to the dating of its masonry. The second crown, although passed over in the standard treatises on Greek building, claims a definite place in the history of Greek walls.

The style recurs in a series of Attic coastal fortifications from the second phase of the Peloponnesian War, beginning with Sounion in 4 1 2 30 and including Thorikos and Rhamnous. The block is mentioned by Welter , cols. It appears in our Plate 4 toward the upper right, held together with rope.

In the course of excavation Welter noted that traces of the bedding for further blocks are preserved elsewhere along the crown on the west. The walls and floor of the modern crypt now overlie much of the western crown, but there does remain at least one portion of this bedding exposed just south of the block. The late 5th-century date, given by Xenophon, Hell.

The dating of the outer circuit at Rhamnous is less well established, cf. Pouilloux , pp. On the north extension of the terrace for the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnous, see Wrede , no. The trapezoidal fortification walls at Phyle likely date from the late 5th century as well: Winter , pp. It is generally agreed that irregular and isodomic trapezoidal were in use simultaneously over this period. I have attempted no chronological distinction between the two. Scranton , pp. The walls would be at that date the earliest known examples of trapezoidal.

They remain unexcavated, however, while more recent bibliography continues to regard the 4th- or 3rd-century circuit as the first fortification of the site; so E. Together they form roughly a square: length on the front east side 1. Its back and right sides are broken away and have been partially reworked to a rough plane at the right rear and to a shallow curve at the back left.

At the center there is a three-level cavity. Surrounding the cavity there is a raised, framelike band of stone we will call it a collar set several centimeters in from the sides of the square. The uppermost of the three levels, formed with three sides straight and the back wall gendy curved, measures 0.

The third lowest level is equal to the second front to back but is slighdy narrower: they measure 0. The collar has a different width on each of its three well-preserved sides, front 0. Traces of an incised line, partially effaced by weathering, can be seen on the upper surface of the collar along the right side at the rear, 0. The outer margin of stone surrounding the raised collar measures 0.

On the damaged right side it survives only in a narrow ledge of stone at the base of the collar on the rear block. Assuming that the collar originally extended to the right edge of the block, we may establish its minimum width from the maximum preserved width of the stone on that side: 0. The under edge of the blocks, seen front and left, betrays a number of anomalies. On the left, the forward and rear blocks are trimmed below to different levels. The height of the forward block, measured front and rear respectively, is 0. The rear block measured front and rear is 0. The resting surface across the front has been carved back in a series of scalloped depressions, most prominently at the front left corner.

The base has suffered extensive damage. In addition to the breaks along the right and rear, noted above, the front block is split away at the upper left corner at the joint, and the collar at the rear is badly cracked and partly broken away. A further crack runs from front to back across both blocks. The collar shows extensive wear at the rear left, along the left side, and across the greater part of the front. The wear in front ends abruptly at a well-defined line 0.

There are clear, if less pronounced, signs of wear on the surround, both front and left. The left front corner of the collar has partially calcined, attesting exposure to intense heat. Traces of mortar adhere to the collar at the front and right and to the surround along the front. Finally, a dark gray plaster covers the front side of the base, as well as portions of the collar at front and right. They are of a crude, seemingly hand-formed type, from 4 to 10 cm. The body is a thin cylinder flared below to form a base, the arms are rough triangles, and the head is pinched and has a flaring headdress.

The form of the base in Stages 1 and 3 can be deduced mainly from the form of the anathyrosis between the blocks, exposed where the front block has split away at upper left Fig. As seen at the joint at upper left, the contact band of the anathyrosis follows the upper contour of the base: its lower edge heads up behind the wall of the top level, curves left beneath the collar, and heads down slighdy from the collar to the surround. In contrast, no contact band seals the joint down the left side of the base; the slighdy recessed, more roughly worked interior of the anathyrosis continues fully to the left edge.

The joint across the lowest level bears close analogy to the joint at left. From roughly the floor of the second level down, the joint surfaces pull away from each other slighdy, leaving a gap up to 5 mm. The inner faces of the joint thus revealed bear the same rough finish as the interior of the joint at left.


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On this evidence we conclude that two areas of the base have been reworked: the left face was cut back sufficiendy to remove the border of anathyrosis on that side; and the two lowest levels of the cavity were cut through the anathyrosis from above. In contrast, the features respected by the anathyrosis the outer margin, collar, and first level may be safely attributed to Stage 1. The two areas of Stage 3 reworking the left side of the base and the two lowest levels of the cavity are distinctively tooled, showing deep, biting strokes of a flat chisel. The same tooling is evident on the right rear of the base, in the recutting of the break, and on the resting surface of the rear block at left: those areas ought also to date from Stage 3.

Finally, the recutting of the base at the back left seems to belong to Stage 3 as well, since it is a curved, irregular reworking roughly analogous to that at the right rear; it is tooled with a point rather than a flat chisel, but the work is in an equally rough hand. The broken right and rear sides of the base, partially retrimmed in Stage 3, attest a period of damage or destruction, Stage 2. Other parts of the base may also have suffered damage at 2 In addition to the references in note 1 above p.

Such damage, at any rate, offers a ready explanation for the Stage 3 retrimming of these areas. The minor reworking of the base, Stage 1 a, is attested by the finish on the right outer face of the collar. The execution of the right collar is exacting: the plane of the face is precise and even, tipped uniformly 3 degrees from the vertical, and the surface of the stone is carefully smoothed with abrasives. In contrast, the remaining sides of the collar, the outer face front and left and the inner wall all around, are coarsely finished with a rasp and are freely drawn.

A straightedge placed against the front of the collar touches at two points, right and middle left, standing away from the face elsewhere as much as 3 mm. The verticals show similar variation. The left face at the rear flares 17 degrees from the vertical, the collar at the front right, 8 degrees. Since of the inner and outer faces of the collar only one, the outer right, is precisely tooled, and since the collar is narrowest on that side, 0.

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